Postwar status of the industry. Wood Information. By law, the Bureau of Forestry is given priority in determining what portion of the Philippine public domain shall be retained for forest usage, to be held separate from lands declared to be of agricultural or mineral usage. Lumber Grading and Inspection2. About 50,000 persons are employed in the lumber industry. These 10 species for status upgrading are the Mapilig, Bagoadlau, Sierra Madre Mangkono, Palawan Mangkono, Mangkono, Samar Gisok, Dalingdingan, Malabayabas, Yakal-malibato, and Yakal-kaliot, most of which are known for their strong and durable wood. Acer saccharum. Sixty-eight proposed forest reserves are pending. The privilege of utilizing timber and other forest products for commercial purposes is granted by a system of licensing. As a source of raw materials and revenue to the Government, it can be managed to yield for a long time more than it does at present. During the Japanese occupation, people took refuge in the forest and made clearings to produce food crops. Some of the less abundant members of the lauan, family are palosapis, Anisoptera thurifera, and manggachapui, Hopea acuminata (the latter is sometimes known as dalindingan). Redwood. There are more than five million hectares of open and grass lands. Before 1941, more than 23 tons of cinchona bark had been harvested and given to the Philippine Bureau of Science for the manufacture of totaquina. Scientific Breakthroughs Some are agricultural lands, others are forest lands. About 70 percent of the entire lumber output is represented by six species of the lauan family: White lauan, Pentacme contorta; red lauan, Shorea negrosensis; tangile, S. polysperma; apitong, Dipterocarpus grandiflorus; yakal, Hopea sp. The Spanish laws embraced far-reaching provisions in conservation and protection against human destruction and unwise utilization. BEECH. Very durable. Only two are reported to have a capacity of as much as 59 m3 (s) (25,000 bd. The Division of Forest Engineering has as its main function the classification and delimitation of public forests so as to separate them from agricultural lands to be turned over to the Bureau of Lands for disposition as homesteads, by sale or lease in accordance with the Public Land Law. This was coincident with the establishment of the Forest School, since the bulk of instruction in the Forest School was and still is handled by the division's personnel. The plantation itself played a very important role in the fight against the Japanese. A cut of this magnitude would still be very conservative, because it would remain considerably below the estimated annual growth of the existing timber stand. We only offer wood which is naturally durable from 15-30 years when used outdoors. One of the most beautiful types of wood, kamagong, is known for its color that ranges from dark brown to a deep black. The wood of guijo is strong, relatively easy to work and has good wearing qualities. There is a great need for technicians and for adequate laboratory facilities for research in forest products utilization, particularly in the use of waste from logging and lumbering, and in the investigation of new uses for woods which at present are not commercially merchantable. Of the classified land, 9,957,000 hectares are alienable and disposable lands certified to the Director of Lands as not needed for forest purposes for disposition under the Public Land Law; while 1,788,000 hectares is timberland under the protective and administrative jurisdiction of the Bureau of Forestry; 17,870,000 hectares, or 61 percent of the land area, remains to be classified. It does not last long though when buried in the ground, unlike molave and ipil. These Useful Accessories Are Upcycled From Scrap Wood by This Local Store! ft.) of sawn lumber, 11,800 m3 (s) (5 million bd. 4. Office of the Director. TOOG - Philippine Rosewood or Toog is a natural species which is currently no longer being harvested. Yakal is used for high-grade construction, bridges and wharves, mine timber, and other installations requiring high strength and durability. Forest Improvement4. Apitong responds admirably to process treatment and is the most important framework wood used in wooden construction. MOR. The Division of Sawmills and Utilization is entrusted with the administration of all timber-license agreements; with the scaling of government timber for collection of forest charges; with scaling work requested by private interests; with the grading and inspecting of lumber, logs, railroad ties, and other timbers; with the study of methods of sawmill and logging operations; with the gathering of information on equipment and machinery used in lumbering. Yacal definition is - any of several hard heavy durable yellowish brown woods obtained from trees of the family Dipterocarpaceae chiefly in the Philippines. The earlywood cells are usually broader because they carry more water in the spring for the leaves and new shoots. The basis for land classification work is Section 18, Act of Congress of the United States, 1 July 1902, which reads in part: "... no timber lands forming part of the public domain shall be sold, leased, or entered until the Government of said Islands, upon the certification of the Forestry Bureau that said lands were more valuable for agriculture than for forest uses, shall declare such lands so certified to be agricultural in character.... " This policy is also set forth in Section 1827 of Act 2711, known as the Revised Administrative Code. On 5 June 1948 the export quota was increased from 20 to 50 percent of production. Exposed to strong winds, the trees are mostly dwarfed and usually covered with mosses, liverworts, filmy ferns, and epiphytic orchids. Arch 172: Properties of Wood The wood consists of rows of tube‐like cells, or fibres, bonded together along their outer surfaces with lignin, a glue‐like substance. Almost all of the technical men in the bureau, around 80 percent of the present personnel, are graduates of the School of Forestry. The 2nd type is kiln-dried wood which is lighter and a little more expensive but is less prone to decay since it has less moisture in it. One of the major problems of Philippine forestry is the utilization of some 5,270,000 hectares of wastelands, a large portion of which is covered with cogon grass, Imperata exaltada. We have many wood choices for beautiful and durable trellis, whether for indoor or outdoor applications. There is also a third type which is reclaimed and recycled wood. Rehabilitation of these projects was a grave concern of the Government, which was straitened by loss of its source of funds, the prewar excise tax. The lower stories consist largely of unmerchantable species, of shrubs and vines, including the rattans. They thrive under a variety of conditions, from moist river bottoms to hilly and mountainous country, and make up the upper story in more or less pure stands. Forest Statistics, 1. Shorea astylosa or yakal reaches heights of about 25-30 meters when mature, and is commonly found in low altitude forests in Quezon, Camarines, Zamboanga, and Davao. Not suitable for outdoor use. Lack of personnel and appropriations to carry out intensive land classification hinder development planning. We supply a number of durable wood choices suitable for exterior usage. Apitong, however, has larger pores and is inclined to be more resinous. The corresponding botanical specimens, however, were destroyed. Research facilities have suffered 'considerable damage. The annual allowable cut therefore is 1.5 percent of the total volume of available or merchantable timber. The first exports went mainly to the United States, China, and Japan. ft.) of squared timber and 36,500 m3 ® (8,050,000 bd. As of 30 June 1948 there were 207 sawmills with complementary power logging equipment and 135 sawmills without logging operations, or a total of 342 sawmills. As a rule, rainfall and humidity are high. No land of the public domain may be legally disposed of by the Government unless it is classified and certified by the Director of Forestry as not needed for forest purposes. For flooring it appeals to lovers of reddish-brown colors. moderatley fine. In fact, furniture made with rattan can last much longer than furniture made from wood or contemporary pieces covered in leather or fabric. During the fiscal year 1940-1941, just before World War II, there were in force 19 long-term timber licenses and 1,189 ordinary timber licenses, or a total of 1,208 licenses, with a total production of 2,221,000 m3 (s) (941,600,000 bd. The principle underlying forest administration since 1863 has been the proper protection, delimitation, conservation, and utilization by wise use of timber and timber lands. This is a problem: the Government cannot immediately provide land for occupation; public domain must first be classified and certified by the Bureau of Forestry as not needed for forest purposes before it can be disposed of for homesteads, for sale or lease, and legally occupied. Once thoroughly dried, however, both woods "stay put. Mayon Volcano in Mt. The Rustic And Modern Appeal of The Fake Wood a.k.a. The Bureau of Forestry administers national parks as well as national forests. 5. 123.56 (g) MOE. One of our specialities is also to produce outdoor decking tiles. For this reason, most termite infestations start with wood that touches or is located close to the soil. Pursuant to the provisions of Act 3915 of 1 February 1932, there have been proclaimed 33 national parks in the Philippines, containing an aggregate area of 226,142 hectares. Beech is widespread in Northern Europe, and is used for anything from indoor furniture to flooring, doors and joinery. The Field Service has 44 provincial forest districts, each headed by a technically trained provincial forester. Grading is assuming increasing importance in the export trade in logs and lumber. BEECH. Filipino graduates of the Forest School have been employed in Borneo and requests for their services have been received from neighboring countries. orientalis; botong, Barringtonia asiatica; palomaria, Calophyllum inophyllum; agoho, Casuarina equisetifolia; bani, Xylocarpus moluccensis; and tawalis, Osbornia octodonta. The greater bulk of the forest is in large blocks on the principal islands such as Luzon, Mindanao, Samar, Negros, and Palawan. Wood species that have a natural resistance to decay, like redwood, cedar, ipe, shorea, and cypress, have a natural resistance to decay. Work on the plantation has been resumed and already more than 80 tons has been harvested. ft.). Like apitong, the wood "moves" in process of seasoning and should be properly dried if the best service is to be expected. Piecemeal classification was continued, nevertheless, and carried on simultaneously with project classification. The following year the name was changed to Division of Investigation in view of the increase of the work and of its scope. These sawmills have an aggregate daily capacity of 5,220 m3 (s) (2,212,000 bd. They now occupy responsible positions in the bureau and in the lumber industry. On account of the tremendous demand for timber, illegal cutting and timber smuggling became widespread. In 1916, it became an independent unit of the University of the Philippines, with the Director of Forestry as ex-officio dean. The principal trees are talisai, Terminalia catappa; dapdap, Erythrina variegata var. An important activity is the maintenance of the Cinchona Plantation in Bukidnon, Mindanao. Present laws and regulations provide for the organization and operation of the Bureau of Forestry under the Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Land classification has been accelerated since. While the pines grow in practically pure stands, hardwoods are found in mixture with them in areas protected from fires, especially in draws at lower elevations. About 40 liters of seed was flown from this plantation to America via Australia to start the American cinchona plantation in Costa Rica, which was well launched by the end of the war. Of the 342 sawmills established as of 30 June 1948, 312 are actually operating. However, the Manila fire of 1897 destroyed the natural history collection. Versatile Appearance Benefits of Wood Furniture. BINTANGOR. Smoking Mt. Among the first problems that the Bureau of Forestry had to under take were the reconnaissance of forest areas, the classification of timber species, the determination of their strength, durability, and other qualities. Bangkirai wood is difficult to treat. High-Grade lumber, yakal can endure severe hot and cold weather conditions. ft.) of sawn lumber and flitches, with an aggregate declared value of more than three million pesos. The white lauans include the real white lauan; almon, S. eximia; bagtikan, Parashorea spp. Where protection is concerned, studies are conducted on the various agencies destructive to forest nurseries, plantations, forest trees, and forest products as well as on methods of preventing and combating them. The species could be used for construction if they could be made more durable by treatment. Above high-tide limits are sandy beaches, where the original vegetation has been left undisturbed. BANGKIRAI (Shorea laevis) General. Licensing System. ft.). Top 10 Most Strongest Wood In The World Wood, as a material, may have its hardness quantified using the Janka rating; the enterprise standard score. There are at present 101 forest reserves throughout the Islands, containing an aggregate area of 1,150,935 hectares. Domestic market. High-Grade lumber, yakal can endure severe hot and cold weather conditions. Manila is the principal lumber and timber market for domestic consumption. Forest taxes. During the war the buildings and roads were badly damaged and the records of studies made were completely lost. The great number of unlicensed firearms left over from guerrilla warfare makes enforcement of forest law difficult, especially in the more remote regions. cm. Akle is brownish in color and is an excellent wood for cabinet-making. As for the comparison between eucalyptus and acacia wood for outdoor furniture, you’ll find that eucalyptus ends up more durable and closer in quality to teak. The functions, powers,: and duties conferred or imposed by law and regulations upon the Bureau of Forestry are performed under the direct control, supervision and responsibility of the Director of Forestry, and exercised through administrative units set out in the accompanying chart. ft.) as rapidly as possible. Investigation work deals mostly with silvics and silviculture, growth and volume measurements of trees and unit areas, establishment of sample plots, study of the influence of forests upon soil, waterflow, and erosion; the identification and classification of trees and woods; study of the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties of wood; and studies on other forest products. The collection of data on capital investments. it is also called “iron wood” and is probably on of the top 10 hardest woods in the world. DRYING. The Bureau of Forestry co-operates with the university in the maintenance of the school through the assignment of some of its personnel to the teaching staff and by making available to the school the facilities of the Division of Forest Investigation. Individuals may also be granted timber for their personal use. Students from Guam, India, Siam, China, and Borneo have attended this school. This type of forest is more open than the dipterocarp type and the volume of timber per unit is much less, averaging 30 m3 per hectare. Marine plywood is not pressure-treated to resist decay, like pressure-treated lumber and plywood. Excellent for: furniture, surface finishes, small weapons, and outdoor constructions. The total land area of the Philippine Islands is 29,741,000 hectares, of which 11,871,000 hectares, or 39 percent, had been classified as of 30 June 1948. This could be supplemented by sending promising young men from the Philippine Forest Service abroad to acquire the most advanced knowledge on all branches of forestry, and especially on forest products utilization. Although the Philippine Forest Service is quite young, as compared with similar organizations in neighboring countries, its system of forest administration has attracted the attention of foresters all over the world. Exports. These two species of pine supply turpentine and rosin. The supply of labor in the lumber industry is not a problem. Some people said that this wood will be stronger if it soaked in water. A number of field experts from FAO and the United States have been sent to help in Philippine rehabilitation. Tindalo keeps its shape remarkably well, and, like most members of the legume family, has a beautiful grain and is very durable. ENVIRONMENTAL SERVICES: Windbreaks and good for soil erosion control. In that same year 4,935 m3 (s), the equivalent of 2,091,000 board feet of lumber, valued at P256,936, was imported. For this purpose, all timber species in the Philippines have been classified into four groups. Philippine forest products are generally classified into two groups, namely (1) the timber, and (2) the so-called minor forest products, which include all products of the forest other than timber. In 1919, however, project classification was inaugurated, with 250 hectares set as the minimum limit for a project. Forest Products3. The Makiling National Park was the first park proclaimed, 23 February 1933; it covers an area of 5,909 hectares. This type of wood substitute is commonly used to build cabinets and furniture. The Division of Forest Management is in charge of the preparation of forest working plans for the management of public forests. During the dry season, the vegetation is largely leafless, but in the wet season it grows luxuriantly. Conditions for the cutting, collecting, and removing of forest products are specified and the public is invited to submit sealed bids. About 1,300,000 hectares are suitable for grazing. The steady increase in production was, however, interrupted by World War II, during which most big sawmills were destroyed. During the fiscal year 1947-1948, there were in force 22 long-term timber licenses and 1,697 ordinary timber licenses, or a total of 1,719 licenses, covering forest areas of 2,655,208 hectares with a total annual allowable cut of 7,500,000, m3 ® (1 650 million bd. This is particularly true of the fishery resources. Working Plans2. But, it is a very durable species used for decking, flooring, furniture and gift items. In all there are 144 forest stations in the Philippines, each under a qualified ranger graduate of the School of Forestry. ft.). We use this species for our decking products. In 1907 there was exported 595 m3 (s) (252,000 bd. I - Advisory StaffII - Inspection ServiceIII - Divisions, 1. It is a very strong wood, so it is also used to make support beams for the construction of buildings. TEAK – YAKAL – IPIL are all durable wood species for exterior applications. Scientific Name: Pterocarpus soyauxii. For more than forty years the Forest Service had built up a Forest Products Museum, reputed to be one of the best in the Orient. What Wood Will Termites Not Eat? Twenty-three of these men have taken advanced forestry courses in the United States. Very limited information was available on the Philippine forests - their extent or logging possibilities; the timber species of potential commercial value were unknown. Before the outbreak of World War II, there were 3,688 ordinary hunting licenses and 22 special permits issued, as against 1,283 ordinary and 9 special hunting licenses and permits issued during the fiscal year 1947-48. All products of the forest other than timber constitute " minor forest products. " ft.). WOOD USES: The timber is used as giam for construction works requiring strong and durable wood, such as bridges and wharves. The Dutch East Indies, China, Siam, India, and other countries have sent foresters to observe it in operation. As a result of the basic information gathered, operators with more capital were attracted to the industry. In the absence of a communal forest' a free license may be granted to cut in the public forests. Its wood is hard and dark brownish-yellow. Most of the forest is of the tropical rain type, complex in its composition. The wood is fairly durable and shows resistance to termites. Another very popular wood is ipil. The remaining forest growth is expected to take care of the natural regeneration of the logged-over areas. Also used for posts and beams in regions where yakal and molave are difficult to come by. While, on the other hand, acacia furniture can be cheaper to purchase than eucalyptus. 4 Simple Ways To Incorporate Filipino Design Style Into Your Unit! If an individual is a resident of a city or municipality owning a communal forest, the timber must be obtained from it. Special Uses4. Financial backing and "know-how" are two important needs. Volume of production. Acacia vs Eucalyptus wood. The timber of the Benguet pine is generally used for mining and general construction purposes in the Mountain Province. Originally, it was a training school for forest rangers, who took a two-year course at government expense. However, clear cutting is usually allowed on agricultural land and in potential agricultural areas. Total annual timber products snowballed from 94,000 m3 (s) (40 million bd. Exports as of 30 June 1948 were 45,000 m3 ® (10 million bd. For house construction, the lauans can be used for siding, partitions, and ceiling and would give excellent results for light ship-planking. 5. If molave and ipil are not available , yakal is used as posts. 2.5 cm and 4 cm thick Bangkirai boards are kiln dried from 50% to 15% in respectively 6 and 9 days in a drying temperature of 43 degrees Centigrade to 71 degrees Centigrade and a relative humidity of 84% to 38%. In 1947-1948, there were 454,000 m3 (s) (192,500,000 bd. Real manggachapui is fine-textured, straight-grained, hard and heavy, white when fresh, but upon exposure to the sun it changes to a dark reddish-yellow. With little modification, the same Act was adopted by the Commonwealth and later by the Republic. There were also in force 1,602 licenses for ordinary minor forest products. 3. After the liberation in 1945, only 38 of these sawmills were left, with a total daily capacity of 687 m3 (s) (291,000 bd. These 10 species for status upgrading are the Mapilig, Bagoadlau, Sierra Madre Mangkono, Palawan Mangkono, Mangkono, Samar Gisok, Dalingdingan, Malabayabas, Yakal-malibato, and Yakal-kaliot, most of which are known for their strong and durable wood. ft.) of lumber, principally from the United States, was imported during that year. Beech is widespread in Northern Europe, and is used for anything from indoor furniture to flooring, doors and joinery. It handles all questions of forest land status, including claims and registration, all forms of occupancy and use of public forest lands, the work pertaining to grazing, conservation and administration of game and other forms of wildlife. During the war about 50 percent of the trained personnel of the organization served with the armed forces and many of them gave their lives for their country. We only offer wood which is naturally durable from 15-30 years when used outdoors. How to … A real giant of a tree, available in wide boards and very easy to work. This wood is water resistant, even from sea water. Dry Wood Borers - Heartwood durable Termites - Class D - Durable (see "Bangkirai and Merbau Termite Resistance") Treatability Bangkirai wood is difficult to treat. At the beginning of the American occupation, investigation work of various kinds was started and carried on by the Bureau of Forestry, in some cases in co-operation with the Bureau of Science and other agencies. If molave and ipil are not available , yakal is used as posts. The back-to-the-farm movement, particularly of the ax-guerrillas, creates a demand for more crop lands. The latest estimate on the extent of the vegetative soil cover of the Philippines is as follows: Approximately 97.5 percent of the forest is owned by the Government and is administered by the Bureau of Forestry; 2.5 percent is privately owned. Stiffness: Pine is a very stiff wood. Quora is a great platform for consumers to connect and seek legitimate answers before they make a decision or a purchase. Among the more important activities of the Bureau of Forestry are the following: Land classification. They had to be abandoned or were destroyed in the course of the war. Very durable. It is conservatively estimated that the aggregate commercial standing timber is around 2,105,000,000 m3 ® (464,729,000,000 bd. GRAIN DIR'N. With the adoption of concrete foundations, even woods of moderate durability can be expected to last for many years. At present there are only 685 pasture permits covering 66,293 hectares, but 959 applications for permits covering about 311,092 hectares are pending. ". The objective is, insofar as permanent timberlands and established forest reserves are concerned, to develop the area under license on a sustained-yield basis. ft.) as compared with the prewar figure (1940) of 4¼ million m3 ® (942 million bd. It does not last long though when buried in the ground, unlike molave and ipil. Heartwood - consists of old cells. From the organization of the Bureau of Forestry under the American regime in 1900 until 1941, the Philippine lumber and timber industry had a remarkable growth and development. ft.) in 1940. Branchlets are rather slender, blackish, and slightly hairy. It is also available from Malaysia under the name of yellow Balau. Maple. Up to that time a total of P257,000 had been invested and the plantation was valued at more than P720,000. Property5. The Division of Forest Investigation is in charge of the research work of the bureau, including the administration of experimental forest nurseries and plantations, plant introduction, and publication of the Philippine Journal of Forestry. These enabled the bureau to open and maintain 35 projects. Mayon, National Park, one of the several scenic parks in the Philippines. The wood is too soft for satisfactory turning. The School of Forestry must be expanded to train men to carry on the various phases of forest conservation and to provide replacements for the pioneers in forestry, many of whom have now rendered more than 30 years of continuous service and who, because of age and ill health, will soon have to retire. Trellis. Durable. Long before this the Government had realized that forestation would solve the problem of wastelands. The yellow variety is more common and more readily obtainable than the red. Wood Species in the Philippines - Mahogany, Acacia and Ash . Considerable areas of virgin forests were also destroyed in the course of military operations. Communal Forests and Pastures. It is estimated that to achieve this level of production would require an investment of at least P22 million in additional sawmills; P4 millions for finishing mills; P2 millions for veneer mills; P1.5 millions for dry-kilns; P2 millions for wood-preservation treatments; and another million for box and barrel manufacture - a total of P50.5 million. In the early part of the American occupation, land classification was limited to individual inspection of areas applied for as homestead, for sale, or for lease under the Public Land Law. These, especially tanguile wood, can be made into exterior application like for the window frames, walls, floor, doors, and other durable pieces of furniture. ... Yakal-yamban Shorea falciferoides ssp. With additional mills under construction and the improvement in logging and sawmilling operations now in progress, output is expected to exceed a thousand million board feet next year. An unusual timber in that it has almost no use in furniture making due to its wild nature on being exposed to air. Manggachapui has most of the properties of guijo and can be used interchangeably with it, but palosapis has uses similar to the lauans. Very durable. The advisory staff, composed of division chiefs and ranking men of the bureau, advises the Director of Forestry in the formulation of policies on administration and management. Forests of this type, found on high and very rough mountainous regions, are essentially protection forests. ft.). For furniture and cabinetmaking and for door and window framing, narra is almost always the choice, although, for those who can afford the price, a still better wood is tindalo, a beautiful hard red wood that darkens with age. Yacal definition is - any of several hard heavy durable yellowish brown woods obtained from trees of the family Dipterocarpaceae chiefly in the Philippines. 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National Park, one of the Dipterocarp family form the predominating timber species in lumber. Suitable for structures exposed to air thanks to a natural species which is naturally durable from years! Of 1897 destroyed the natural History collection of squared timber and other special forests are specified and the plantation been.
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